Ondas e Óptica - F+EF+EB+mnrF

Ano letivo: 2010-2011
Specification sheet

Specific details
course codecycle os studiesacademic semestercredits ECTSteaching language

Learning goals

1. Students should know how to analyse real optical systems and understand their limitations.

2. Students should know how to describe waves and understand the concepts of group velocity, dispersion and interference.

3. Students should know how to deal with polarized light, know how polarizers function and on what they are based.

4. Students should know the ingredients that underlie Fraunhofer diffraction and understand Fresnel diffraction in terms of its essential aspects.

5. Students should know how to analyse refraction and the reflexion of waves between two different media.

6. Students should calculate the interference between waves and understand the importance of interferometric techniques.

7. Students should know how optical fibres, lasers and holograms function and what they are used for.


1. Geometric optics:

1.1. Matrix analysis of optical systems.

1.2. Seidel’s aberration theory.

1.3. GRIN Systems optics.

1.4. Computational analysis of optical systems.

2. Waves:

2.1. Oscillations. Normal states in oscillation. Continuous systems. Waves.

2.2. Waves in one, two, and three dimensions. Stationary waves.

2.3. Wave packets. Group velocity.

Mechanical waves in one dimension.

2.1. Transversal waves on rope. Longitudinal waves on a spring.

2.2. Acoustic waves and acoustic pressure waves.

3.1 Spherical and cylindrical waves.

3.2. Transverse waves in a membrane.

3.3. Stationary wave states in a membrane.

4.1. Electromagnetic waves.

4.2. Dispersive optical media.

4.3. Light polarization.

5.1. Interference of two waves.

5.2. Fraunhofer diffraction. One slit, two slits, N slits. Diffraction networks.

5.3. Circular Aperture Diffraction. Airy Pattern. Optical resolution.

6. Fresnel diffraction. Fresnel’s zones. Fresnel Lenses.

7. Kirchhoff and Fresnel’s Diffraction. Fresnel integrals. Edge diffraction.

8. Refraction and reflection of waves between two media.

8.1. Fresnel equations for optics.

8.2. Rayleigh equations for acoustics.

9. Interferometry. Interferometers. Interferometric filters.

10. Optical fibres. Propagation modes. Application analysis.

11. Lasers. Population inversion. Stimulated emission. Resonant cavities and their own ways. Types of lasers. Properties of the laser light.

12. Holography. Analysis of the physical principle and applications.



Mathematical Analysis.

General Physics.


- students should already know the electromagnetic theory.

- the previous knowledge of elementary geometric optics is desirable.

- students should already be familiarized with algebra, complex numbers, infinitesimal  calculus and the differential equations.

Generic skills to reach
. Competence in analysis and synthesis;
. Competence to solve problems;
. Critical thinking;
. Ethical commitment;
. Creativity;
. Competence in oral and written communication;
. Computer Skills for the scope of the study;
. Adaptability to new situations;
. Quality concerns;
. Self-criticism and self-evaluation;
(by decreasing order of importance)
Teaching hours per semester
laboratory classes45
total of teaching hours75

Laboratory or field work20 %
Problem solving10 %
Mini tests10 %
Assessment Tests20 %
Exam40 %
assessment implementation in 20102011
Problems solving : 10.0%
Mini-tests : 10.0%
Laboratorial or field work : 20.0%
Frequency: 20.0%
Exam: 40.0%

Bibliography of reference

HECHT & ZAJAC. Optics. (existe trad.; ed. Gulbenkian).

PEDROTTI, F. L.; PEDROTTI, L. S. (1992). Introduction to Optics.

FERREIRA, Mário (2003). Óptica e Fotónica.

FRENCH. A. (1992). Vibrations and Waves. (existe trad. em castel.). 

Teaching method

- theoretical classes written on the black board and projection of transparencies or videos consisting of computational presentations and animations sometimes may also be used simultaneously.

- theoretical-practical classes for problem discussion.

- laboratorial classes; - experimental demonstration classes.

- elaboration of supporting texts covering all the approached subjects in classes.

- elaboration of about 100 solved and discussed problems that are examples of the approached subjects.

- all the classes should always be open to discussion, involving students in it.

Resources used
Laboratório de óptica/fotónica bem equipado.