The course of General Chemistry aims to give students a theoretical knowledge of different areas of chemistry important to the degree in Environmental Engineering. The chair of General Chemistry covers the teaching of the composition of matter, the fundamentals of chemical energy, solutions and colligative properties, chemical equilibria in solutions, homogeneous and oxidation-reduction, chemical kinetics and molecular spectroscopy together with some basic knowlegde in organic chemistry.
General and specific skills (Dublin descriptors):
1. to have the knowledge and ability to understand:
1.1 - how to recognize and use theories and concepts
1.2 - how to analyze and summarize information
2. Applying knowledge and understanding
2.1 - Apply knowledge to address problems
3. Realization of judgment / decision making:
3.1 - Process and interpret quantitative data
4.1 - to understand and use information sources
4.2 - Transmitting knowledge appropriately acquired
5. Skills of self-learning
5.1 - to develop skills appropriate to be autonomous
5.2 - to know how to evaluate self-performance
1.1. Definition of Chemistry as a discipline; Brief review of the history of ideas in Chemistry ? the Law of Conservation of Matter; the Law of Defined Proportions; the Atomic Theory (Dalton);
1.2. Definitiions of Matter and its states; physical properties and chemical properties; Units;
2. Composition of matter:
2.1. Review of the concepts that led to our present understanding of atomic structure;
2.2. Development of the Aufbau Prinzip ? Quantum Theory and the Bohr atom; subatomic particles as electromagnetic waves; the Wave Equation; the Uncertainty Principle; the Duality Principle; the Exclusion Principle; Hund's Rule;
2.3. Geometry of atomic orbitals; the Valence Shell; ?Valence Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion?; Hybridization of atomic orbitals;
2.4. The Periodic Table; Classification of the elements in Periods and Groups; Isotopes; the Concept of electronegativity; Oxidation states; Ions;
2.5. Formation of molecular orbitals and chemical bonding;
3. Prioperties of Matter:
3.1. Polarity as a molecular property; Intermolecular interactions;
3.2. The gas phase ? properties e behaviour, Equation of State; Ideal and Non-ideal gases; the Kinetic-Molecular Theory of gases;
3.3. The Liquid Phase ? Properties and behaviour, liquids as solvents;
3.4. The solid phase ? properties and behaviour, types of solids and crystallinity;
4. Chemical Thermodynamics:
4.1. Thermochemistry; Internal Energy and Enthalpy, Hess' Law, The First Law of Thermodynamics;
4.2. Entropy and Absolute Entropy (Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics);
4.3. Reversible and Irreversible Processes; Chemical Equilibrium and factors that affect it; the Le Chatelier Principle; Introduction to phase equilibria;
4.4. Free Energy and its relation to chemical equilibrium.
5.1. Formation of solutions, solvation, solubility of solids and gases in líquids; equilibrium in solutions;
5.2. Colligative properties; Osmosis;
5.3. Solutions of electrolytes and non-electrolytes, Conductivity, Activity and concentration;
5.4. Acids, bases and buffers; pH, Acid-base titration;
6. Chemical Kinetics:
6.1. Reaction rates; Reaction order and mechanism, Molecularity; Reactions of the 1st., 2nd., and pseudo-1st. order;
6.2. The Arrhenius Law; Activated State Theory; Methods of study in Chemical Kinetics;
6.3. Genera princíples of chemical catalysis.
7. Oxidation-Reduction and Electrochemistry:
7.1. Oxidation-reduction reactions; Electrode potencials and the Nernst equation;
7.2. The electrochemical series and its uses;
7.3. Electrochemical cells (galvanic and electrolytic), Electrodes; Reference electrodes;
7.4. Electrolysis; the Faraday Law.
Prerequisites are defined by the criteria for admission into the respective courses
Generic skills to reach
. Competence in oral and written communication; . Competence to solve problems; . Critical thinking; . Competence in autonomous learning; . Competence in applying theoretical knowledge in practice; . Competence in analysis and synthesis; . Computer Skills for the scope of the study; . Competence for working in group; . Self-criticism and self-evaluation; (by decreasing order of importance)
Teaching hours per semester
total of teaching hours
Bibliography of reference
R. Chang, e K. Goldsby, CHEMISTRY, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 11th. edition, 2012. ISBN-10: 00713117872
É recomendado que o aluno possua uma cópia deste livro (ou de uma das suas anteriores edições) para contínua referência e estudo particular a acompanhar as aulas.
It is recommended that each student posses a copy of this textbook for continuous reference and individual study that accompanies the lectures.
Classical lectures with presentation of the matters by the teacher and their discussion with the students, in the theoretical classes.
Practical classes for solving exercises.