1.1. Definition of Chemistry as a discipline; Brief review of the history of ideas in Chemistry ? the Law of Conservation of Matter; the Law of Defined Proportions; the Atomic Theory (Dalton);
1.2. Definitiions of Matter and its states; physical properties and chemical properties; Units;
2. Composition of matter:
2.1. Review of the concepts that led to our present understanding of atomic structure;
2.2. Development of the "Aufbau Prinzip" ? Quantum Theory and the Bohr atom; subatomic particles as electromagnetic waves; the Wave Equation; the Uncertainty Principle; the Duality Principle; the Exclusion Principle; Hund's Rule;
2.3. Geometry of atomic orbitals; the "Valence Shell"; ?Valence Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion?; Hybridization of atomic orbitals;
2.4. The Periodic Table; Classification of the elements in Periods and Groups; Isotopes; the Concept of electronegativity; Oxidation states; Ions;
2.5. Formation of molecular orbitals and chemical bonding;
3. Prioperties of Matter:
3.1. Polarity as a molecular property; Intermolecular interactions;
3.2. The gas phase ? properties e behaviour, Equation of State; Ideal and Non-ideal gases; the Kinetic-Molecular Theory of gases;
3.3. The Liquid Phase ? Properties and behaviour, liquids as solvents;
3.4. The solid phase ? properties and behaviour, types of solids and crystallinity;
4. Chemical Thermodynamics:
4.1. Thermochemistry; Internal Energy and Enthalpy, Hess' Law, The First Law of Thermodynamics;
4.2. Entropy and Absolute Entropy (Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics);
4.3. Reversible and Irreversible Processes; Chemical Equilibrium and factors that affect it; the Le Chatelier Principle; Introduction to phase equilibria;
4.4. Free Energy and its relation to chemical equilibrium.
5.1. Formation of solutions, solvation, solubility of solids and gases in líquids; equilibrium in solutions;
5.2. Colligative properties; Osmosis;
5.3. Solutions of electrolytes and non-electrolytes, Conductivity, Activity and concentration;
5.4. Acids, bases and buffers; pH, Acid-base titration;
6. Chemical Kinetics:
6.1. Reaction rates; Reaction order and mechanism, Molecularity; Reactions of the 1st., 2nd., and pseudo-1st. order;
6.2. The Arrhenius Law; Activated State Theory; Methods of study in Chemical Kinetics;
6.3. Genera princíples of chemical catalysis.
7. Oxidation-Reduction and Electrochemistry:
7.1. Oxidation-reduction reactions; Electrode potencials and the Nernst equation;
7.2. The electrochemical series and its uses;
7.3. Electrochemical cells (galvanic and electrolytic), Electrodes; Reference electrodes;
7.4. Electrolysis; the Faraday Law.
Bibliography of reference
R. Chang, e K. Goldsby, CHEMISTRY, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 11th. edition, 2012. ISBN-10: 00713117872
É recomendado que o aluno possua uma cópia deste livro (ou de uma das suas anteriores edições) para contínua referência e estudo particular a acompanhar as aulas.
It is recommended that each student posses a copy of this textbook for continuous reference and individual study that accompanies the lectures.