How did it develop? What is its validity? Why study Physics?
2. Model of material point or particle.
2.1. Validity of this model – real situations to which it can be applied.
2.2. Kinematics: referential, position, velocity, acceleration. Examples of application. Study of rectilinear movements and planar movements: projectiles and circular motion. Translational Relative Movement. Galileo transformations.
2.3. Dynamics: Newton laws. Study of different types of forces and their effect on the motion of bodies.
Brief approach to non-inertial referentials. Linear momentum and impulse theorem. Angular momentum and its conservation. Movements of bodies that are subject to central forces.
2.4. Work and energy: theorem of kinetic energy (conservation of energy). Fields of forces. Conservative forces and potential difference that is associated with a conservative field. Potential energy. Equipotential surfaces. Mechanical energy of a body in a conservative field and its conservation requirements.
2.5. Vibratory movements. Simple harmonic movement. Elastic potential energy. Study of the simple pendulum. Superposition of simple harmonic movements. Cushioned oscillations. Forced oscillations and resonance.
2.6. Gravity field and gravitational interactions. Gravitational mass and inertial mass. Weight of a body and imponderability. Gravitational potential energy.
3. Particle system model.
Balance of a rigid body. Equivalent sets of forces that are applied to a rigid body. The effect of terrestrial gravitational field on a rigid body: definition of centre of mass. Particle system dynamics. Rigid body dynamics. Considerations on energy changes in real bodies.
Bibliography of reference
COSTA, Mª Margarida & ALMEIDA, Mª José de (2004). Fundamentos de Física. Ed. Almedina.
TIPLER, Paul (1999). Physics. Ed. W.H.Freeman and Co.
BUECHE, F. & HECHT, E. (2001). Física. Ed. McGraw-Hill.
Colectânea de problemas de Fundamentos de Física – Departamento de Física