2. Mechanical waves. The concept of wave. Elastic waves: pulses and progressive harmonic waves. Wave function and wavelength: its periodicity in time and space. Types of wavy movements. Propagation of waves in two and three dimensions. Superposition of waves: interferences. Reflection and standing waves. Huygens principle: diffraction; diffraction networks. Acoustics: sound and pressure waves. Characteristics of sound.
3. Electrostatics. Coulomb’s law and its meaning in terms of the electric field. Electrical potential energy and potential.
Charge distributions: non-continuous – example: study of the electric dipole, continuous – example: charge distribution in a spherical surface.
Flux of a vector: Flux’s law or Gauss’s law. Equilibrium charges in material media: conductor and dielectric media.
Equilibrium conductors: charge distributions and field lines.
Isolated conductor: ability; energy. System of conductors.
Condensers: ability; energy. Study of examples: spherical condenser, flat condenser. Condensers association.
Dielectric media: polarization of matter; change of the capacity of a condenser by means of the introduction of a dielectric medium.
4. Electric circuits. Electric current. Current intensity. Continuous current. Current density vector. Ohm’s Law.
The power of an electric current: Joule’s law. Generators of continuous current. Generalized Ohm’s law. Kirchoff’s laws or the derived circuit laws. Association of resistances. Galvanometers, voltmeters and ampermeters.
Variable currents: charge and discharge; alternating current.
5. Electromagnetism. Oersted’s experiments and Biot-Savart law. Laplace’s law. Calculation of magnetic fields that are created by electrical currents. Interaction between electric currents.
Forces exerted by magnetic fields on electric currents: atomic magnetism. Functioning of the galvanometer.
Magnetic induction: Faraday and Lenz’s laws. Self-induction and mutual induction of variable currents with time. Electrical alternating current generators. Electrical transformers.
6. Electromagnetic waves. Generation of electromagnetic waves. Spectrum. Behaviour of the visible light.
7. Geometrical optics. Rectilinear propagation. Definition of concepts and conventions. Principles and laws of geometrical optics. Total reflection and limit angle. Study of the flat dioptre. Study of the spherical dioptre. Mirrors. Ideal lenses. Equation of the conjugated foci. Characteristic points of an optical system. The human eye. Optical instruments: magnifying glass; microscope; telescopic instruments.
Bibliography of reference
COSTA, Mª Margarida & ALMEIDA, Mª José de (2004). Fundamentos de Física. Ed. Almedina.
TIPLER, Paul (1999). Physics. Ed. W.H.Freeman and Co.
BUECHE, F. & HECHT, E. (2001). Física. Ed. McGraw-Hill.
Colectânea de problemas de Fundamentos de Física – Departamento de Física.